The ferocious predatory dinosaurs of Cretaceous Sahara – Nizar Ibrahim

The ferocious predatory dinosaurs of Cretaceous Sahara – Nizar Ibrahim

There are few places on Earth
less hospitable to life than the bone-dry Sahara Desert. Yet it wasn’t always this way. 100 million years ago, during a period
known as the Mid-Cretaceous, a gargantuan river system flowed
across the region from modern day Egypt to Morocco. The whole world at that time
would look rather different to us. The continents had yet to assume
their current positions. Extreme temperatures were common and fierce storms made life unpredictable. Dinosaurs flourished on land, pterosaurs roamed the skies, and giant marine reptiles and sharks
swam in warm seas. Small mammals, our ancestors,
lived quite literally in the shadow of these extraordinary creatures. In this world of huge predators, the River of Giants, which is what some call this region
of what is now northern Africa, stood out as particularly dangerous. In most ecosystems, it’s lonely at
the top of the food chain. There usually isn’t enough prey
to sustain many predators. Yet an incredible variety of aquatic
prey species in the river-based ecosystem may have allowed a large and diverse
population of apex predators to coexist. We know this thanks to a wealth of fossils
we found in an area called the Kem Kem Beds. Many of the predators we’ve discovered
had head and body shapes that made them uniquely adapted
to hunt the different types and sizes of aquatic prey. This allowed many Kem Kem predators to
take full advantage of the one abundant food source
in this environment: fish. This also allowed them
to avoid direct competition with the predators going after
land-loving animals. Prey species in the river system had to
contend with attacks from all sides, including from above. Flying reptiles dominated the skies. Alanqa Saharica had a wingspan of
up to nine meters, and long slender jaws that helped it
snatch fish and small terrestrial animals. At least seven different types
of crocodile-like predators patrolled the waterways, including the roughly
ten-meter-long Elosuchus. And multiple species of T-rex-sized
carnivorous dinosaurs called theropods, lived side by side. In the River of Giants,
Spinosaurus was king. This 15-meter-long dinosaur was even
longer than T-rex, with short muscular hind legs, a flexible tail, and broad feet. It’s two-meter-high sail warned
other creatures of its fearsome size and may have also been
used to attract mates. Spinosaurus’ long slender jaws were spiked
with conical teeth, perfect for swiftly clamping down
on slippery aquatic prey. This apex predator,
as well as its ecosystem, is unparalleled in the history
of life on Earth. All that’s left of these
fearsome predators are fossils. About 93 million years ago,
sea levels rose, submerging the Kem Kem region
in a shallow sea. Tens of millions of years later, an asteroid impact, volcanic eruptions, and associated changes in climate wiped out the dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and
many other groups of animals and plants, including their unique ecoysystems. That mass extinction paved the way
for the rise of new kinds of birds, larger mammals, and eventually us.

Randy Schultz

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100 thoughts on “The ferocious predatory dinosaurs of Cretaceous Sahara – Nizar Ibrahim

  1. Roblox Gamer says:

    100 million i think that a 100 billion

  2. Tamara Lipsa says:

    The animation is too good

  3. Boys Kleis says:

    1:26. The sawfish just came.

  4. Alex The Dank club boy art says:

    When i press the video,there's a funny add

  5. Scorpio1447 says:

    3:04 *bends over*

  6. Random Human says:

    Nice try but I need some feathers and Dino can’t roar

  7. Scott Eberle says:

    Why do you abbreviate meters as "MTRS."?

  8. Dalton Watson says:

    This video is 4:20 long

  9. Brandon Blake says:



    1:23 and 1:40 BAUWITIUS!!!!!!!!


    3:11 R.I.P bauitius

  12. ComradeAlyosha says:

    Spine was not quadruped it’s wrists could not handle its weight

  13. sabastian says:

    Spino is the dino

  14. sabastian says:

    That is why I named my self dinospinos in roblox

  15. The Blood Vessel says:

    Spinos bite force was very small thow

  16. El Presidente says:

    The Map looks like CIV V

  17. Herosofliz says:

    Great animation! I think you should check the accuracy on some of the creatures though.

  18. ?? says:

    Carcardontosaurs was top predator not spino and don't belive jurassic park 3 or monsters ressurected they lied

  19. Raju Kaju says:

    Spino is my fav dinosaur

  20. Batang 8 says:

    why did a meteor HAVE to hit earth, at that exact timeframe? would've been cool to see people domesticate dinos on the regular.

  21. Pepe says:

    Spinosaurus and trex lived millions of years apart and thousands of miles apart

  22. CookieMonster says:

    Spinosaurus was a quadruped

  23. Ian Malcolm says:

    What about the Carchadontosaurus, I spelled that wrong

  24. Storm Fire says:

    Oh Yeah!love the Spinosaurus!

  25. Sherry Wallace says:

    Why is the spino so derpy?

  26. Mini GamerPH says:

    God probably type /kill @a

  27. NATCMF 100% real faction says:

    Wasn’t the 2014 spinosaurus specimen debunked?

  28. Joao Silva says:

    Spino is The best

  29. death skull fire says:

    There's things in this channel I don't get
    1.we're dose he get all of the facts from this guy some sort of science person or some thing
    3.nice vids
    4.I get my facts from Google

  30. Josheon Zyskowski says:

    Ima make a dino toy series cos of this now

  31. elijah dontmess says:

    You mean sarcosuches 2:37 somebody needs to learn about crocodiles and alligators

  32. Norvy Flores says:

    This is thd part of the video 4:20 thank me lated

  33. Hatem Hassan says:

    excellent video, go on

  34. Magsaysay Music 2018 says:

    The movie should be titled Cretaceous Park hehehe

  35. Dung HN says:

    a helpful video for Vietnamese who are learning English

  36. Pecka Nam says:

    Did you know that birds evolved from dinosaurs? So, in some terms, dinosaurs are alive today

  37. mariam ndumu says:

    where is the sarcosuchus

  38. Elias Eid says:


  39. Superior Games'n vlogs says:

    The spino ate fish right?
    Why is that the opposite of Jurassic world the game?
    Need more answers.

  40. elijah dontmess says:

    Did you made elosuches

  41. A Trex says:

    By the way, Spino should have four toes on each foot.

  42. Electric Wolf Pup says:


  43. Dragon king says:


  44. Владимир Димитров says:

    Wow this video is long 4:20

  45. Sean Shih says:

    Finally Spinosaurus is appreciated!

  46. modem boy says:

    spino is my king predator!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  47. hubert sidarta says:

    Always a pleasure to hear your voice.

  48. Renton Berce says:


  49. Raid Mahdi says:

    The most complete Dinosaur: Spinosaur

  50. Joshua Dominguez says:


  51. Potato VX-Spino9000 says:

    Ayyy I'm on here

  52. C Dio00426 says:

    When I say I live and breathe dinosaurs 🦕 I mean it

  53. i need healing says:

    249 dislikes?, Probably t rex fans

  54. Deoix9877 says:

    it's worth saying that dinosaurs didn't go extint. birds didn't come from dinosaurs, they ARE dinosaurs. I know it's a technicality and usually when people talk about dinosaurs they mean the extinct ones, buuut, since it's an educational video, I think it should be mentioned.

  55. King Rat says:

    This video is 420 lol

  56. Jay Jay says:

    I really love this animation. It's so fluid!

  57. Derp Ammo 2.0 says:

    Love the video, but how does a shadow give out light in the form of an eye? 0:59

  58. Oday Aboukheir says:

    Ted Ed your literally my teacher

  59. BluePisces 97 says:

    The art in this video is amazing!

  60. lonelyrainCloud says:

    Everyone:The spinosaurus is the biggest and most ferocious predator of the Kem Kem Beds

    T-Rex fanboys/fangirls: how the actual fck

  61. likira111 says:

    I find it ironic we start out by hearing that the area used to be more diverse because it had more water then it gets killed with water

  62. meitetsu1704 smart says:


  63. Funny Penguin says:

    This video is so beautifully animated, and interesting

  64. Edgardo Velayo says:

    I ate a dinosaur

    It was a chicken nugget

  65. AJTheDinoExplorer says:

    Some dinos survived the mass extinction so some
    survivors ate each other

  66. Dan Peterson says:

    I was surprised to see the name of such a well known paleontologist associated with Spinosaur research making a YouTube video! A very informative, colorful and even funny film at times.  I wonder if it was incorporated in the Spinosaurus exhibit at the National Geographic  exhibit revealing  the 'new' finds and reconstruction a few years ago?  Thank you for sharing this here!

  67. Reason says:

    Asteroid killed off non-avian dinosaurs. Other factors did not deliver the fatal blow. Let it go.

  68. Hiền Nguyễn Thu says:

    I’m a simple person… I see Spinosaurus, I click Like

  69. Deepak Joshi says:

    Many fish including the onchopristis had their roles reversed

  70. shin godzilla Cheng says:

    the t-rex is the King you are DUDE

  71. C L says:

    Finally, confirmation from a respected scientist of what I have suspected for many years, that dinosaurs and other contemporary species were cartoon-like in appearance.

  72. nighttracker ? says:


  73. s sandus says:

    Climate changes with or without us. We are just a new variable. We have a lot of work to do.

  74. Sleep Deprived Potato says:

    Lmao, there used to be so much water in Africa

  75. Nikki the Creator says:

    Great animation as per usual

  76. ImJustA Human says:

    I love the animation!!

  77. Loriemae Marquez says:

    How do we know the sounds dinosaurs made? 🤔

  78. Heather Melohn says:

    This is a test to see if stegosaurus and I will prehistoric pals and I will be there at earthquake in the did not get the did not get tree spinosaurus

  79. Heather Melohn says:

    Edmontosaurus and I will be there at earthquake in the ceratosaurus

  80. Noob z says:

    That's why spino is my favorite not cuz it's big but smart in their environment

  81. Arshan Uludoğan says:

    This is what I was before 🐒🐒🐒 And this is mr dinosaur now 🦅🦅🦅

  82. Clown says:

    0:49 that's megalodon!

  83. Penny Carvin says:

    I love your accurate spinosaurus

  84. RyuDieDragonYG [GD] says:

    Kinggidorah is my favorite dinosaur

  85. ジュン says:

    0:36 that's I call foreshadowing future

  86. Some Guy says:

    I remember playing with toy dinosaurs as a kid

  87. sari pasfm says:

    t rex triceratops raptors in here

  88. gud bie says:

    My grandpa always tells me stories about Cretaceous period. He was fond of his pet suchosaurous Timmy

  89. Jimmy Lee says:

    got a question who made god

  90. Neyuerde says:


  91. Versatile- HD says:

    thanks meteor, now our ancestors at that day livin cool

  92. Rose White says:

    GOD only created Earth 6,000 years ago.
    He created the dinosaurs on Day 6 and all dinosaurs were friendly herbivores using their big teeth to bite and chew lots of leaves.

  93. Ronald Sarte says:

    River of giants: the swamp in ark

  94. Thatbeef Man says:

    Cool how do I get the song

  95. 而已?而是因為我是覺得自己不會那個誰能感受過接觸過染病者 says:

    thank you

  96. ToudaHell says:

    All that's left of them are chickens. Fried dinosaur anybody?

  97. OG773 _ says:

    This guy's voice is my favorite voice from TED-Ed

  98. Khaleesi Romaerys says:

    Maybe at our golden age we'll go extinct and a new wave of intelligent animals will be born.

  99. Hiền Nguyễn Thu says:


    Me: Your Majesty, I have brought to you some of your favorite fish…

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